In this essay, Professor Iwai discusses the use of trade and travel restrictions placed on Chinese maritime merchants by the early Qing court. It involves trade contacts among China, Japan, Korea, and various states in Southeast Asia. The institution of a system of regional maritime customs was one result of this changing policy. It provides as well a whole new look at the institution of the shinpai (licenses issued by the Tokugawa shogunate for trade at the port of Nagasaki) seen now from the perspective of the Chinese. He also takes a close look at specific cases (Li Taoshi, Li Wei) to illustrate the points being made.